Organizational behaviour refers to the study or research of interaction between people within groups or in an organization. This type of research or study is usually conducted to make an attempt to create a well stimulated organizational structure and environment. It is a scientific approach which can be effectively utilized for workforce management in a proper manner. It usually has three different levels which are
- Micro level which takes place among individuals within an organization
- Meso level taking place between work groups
- Macro level which is how an organization behaves as a whole.
The concept of organizational behaviour is based on two important elements. They are nature of people and nature of the organization. Both these elements have their own characteristics.
Nature of people
Factors impacting this element are as follows
- Individual approach is the primary aspect of this element. In this a thumb rule is followed wherein a manager or supervisor approaches each and every team member individually. This approach helps in eliminating any biasness within the structure.
- Perception is build up based on the observation, listening to the individual and deriving a conclusion based on first two pointers. It is the logical interpretation of a behavioural pattern.
- Determining the personal traits based on the entire behavioural pattern is essential in this case. Only judging a person based on a technical skill is not enough to evaluate the capabilities of that person. It is important to evaluate other elements such as soft skills, problem solving and other traits.
- Self motivating individuals are a big plus to any team. These people not only put in their complete effort in to each task, they also motivate others within the team.
- Value of a person should be determined in terms of skill set, contribution and professionalism.
Nature of organization
Characteristics of this element are as follows.
- The social system of every organization forms the basic foundation of this element. It is the approach of social connections of a company with other firms. It is usually divided in to two types, formal and informal. Formal communication is related to official celebrations and club meetings. Informal ones are mostly basic interaction between groups of people.
- Mutual interest is another element of necessity under this case. It is evident that an organization needs human resources to survive and people need organizations to flourish and cater to career growth. This understanding on both sides is considered as mutual interest. This helps both the parties to reach their respective goals in a systematic and profitable manner which is stable and long term.
- Ethics is one of the key aspects of organizational nature. While it is very important to strategise on revenue generation and business expansion, it should not be channelized through illegal practices. It might seem profitable at first but in the long run it slows down the progress and ultimately may result in a complete loss.
Organizational behaviour is the combination of above elements that keep the corporate structure stable and smoothly functional.
An interview is one of the most important stages of everybody’s professional career. It determines the career path and graph of individual and shapes up the future. This goes for both fresher candidates as well as the professionally experienced ones. No matter how much we all deny, the truth is we all get nervous and a bit worried before an interview. Many of us also get confused regarding how to be presentable in such a way that creates a positive impression. Amidst all this one thing is important that the candidates puts the best foot forward in terms of bogy language during the interview. It represents the confidence and ability to handle a stressful situation which creates the first impression as well. So, here are a few tips that are helpful towards maintaining a healthy and professional body language during an interview.
- Everything starts the moment you walk in to the company. Do remember that even if the interviewer is not present the moment you walk in, he or she may take a quick feedback from the person who is present at the front desk. So be careful with your entrance and give a positive vibe. We all become a little nervous is such cases but do not show off the panicky expression which might convey a wrong impression.
- One of the primary actions to be done during an interview is making an eye contact. While answering questions or explaining certain things, make sure you look at the interviewer. It shows off your confidence and a positive intention. But do not go overboard with it. An intimidating look may create an opposite thought altogether.
- During conversation it is sometimes good to use hand gestures in a subtle way. It portrays that you know what you are saying and are confident about it. It shows that you have a positive thought about the process.
- A gentle smile can work wonders. We agree that you are stressed but do not let that stress create a frown over your face. It is a negative point. Smiling subtly shows your casual side and you capability to handle stressed situation with ease. This adds a massive plus point to your profile.
- Lastly, try to follow your interviewer and reciprocate in a similar fashion. In this way you will be able to create a lasting impression that will carry forward to the final evaluation process as the interviewer will remember you easily.
With healthy positive tips, there are certain things which you should avoid during the interview process:
- First and foremost do not slouch during an interview. Practice to sit mostly straight which shows off your confidence. Slouching conveys a negative impression.
- Do not touch your face frequently. This includes removing your hair from your face or rubbing your nose. This conveys the impression that you are distracted which is not good.
- Tapping fingertips or jiggling your leg is also not a good thing. It might convey that you are impatient. It is better to get rid of these habits quickly.
In August 2016, Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Bill which is the official reformation of the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 was passed at the Rajya Sabha which states that amount of paid maternity leaves have increased to 26 weeks in India from 12 weeks earlier on. It is a mandatory step to be taken up by the factories, mines and plantation as well. It has also increased the limit of paid maternity leaves before delivery from 6 to 8 weeks. This legislation applies to any establishment which has employee strength of more than 10 people and can be availed by employees who have worked in the organization for at least 80 days in 12 months preceding the date of the delivery. There is another segment of the law which is under discussion at current times related to the commissioning and adopting mothers. It proposes 12 weeks leave for them. The segment also includes providing crèche facility when the employee count is 50 or more.
With current reformation to the Maternity policy, it is essential to look in to maternity leave scenario at other countries.
- Sweden tops the list when it comes to maternity leave policy. It has 56 weeks of paid maternity leave with 80% pay guaranteed. The leave can also be extended by 13 weeks in case of necessity with a fixed salary rate to be decided between the employee and management. Paternity leave is 34 weeks to new parents and same gender couples can apply for the leaves accordingly.
- Croatia is next in line with 24 weeks of maternity leave accompanied by full pay. It also has the provision of additional 34 weeks to be added to the leave duration at a negotiable salary rate. There is 34 weeks of paternal leave as well.
- United Kingdom has 52 weeks of maternity leave in which 26 weeks are compulsory and rest is additional. In first 36 weeks, the pay given is up to 96%. The paternity leave is 26 weeks as well.
- In Canada, duration of maternity leave is dependent on the employment history and average working hours which extend from 17 weeks to 52 weeks. Average salary paid is usually 55% of the total amount but in certain cases it might go up to 80%. Paternity leave is up to 35 weeks.
- United States of America does not have any maternity leave structure as such. There is only provision of 12 weeks of unpaid leaves.
Hence it is evident that while there are many countries providing better maternity leave than India, there are certain developed countries like USA who lag behind.
While this initiative of India has been praised by many, there are certain concerns to it as well. Some experts believe that maternity leave scheme will impact the career growth of female employees since they miss out on office for a long stretch during this period and their previous contributions may not be acknowledged. Secondly, this implies to the organized sector which employs only 10% of the women. The rest 90% would not be able to gain the benefit of this policy. Hence, it is yet to be seen what impact it has on the workforce structure as a whole in India.
Learning culture is a new trend within the corporate environment which is increasingly being accepted across the globe by leading players and organizations. There are new technologies and corporate trends that are evolving at a steady rate which influence market and industry condition in a significant manner. Keeping the workforce informed about the same is essential to make and implement strategic decisions that not only conceptualize the path for future growth but also have an important impact on the present conditions. In order to understand the intricate details of learning culture, the need for the same is to be understood.
- It helps in developing the morale of the employees and keeps them motivated for performing their best in the functionalities they are employed. It grows a sense of satisfaction among the workforce.
- It augments staff retention to a considerable extent and lowers the cost related to repeated recruitment. An individual tends to stay with an organization when he or she has the chance to grow in terms of knowledge base to a certain extent. This approach contributes to that cause.
- Organizational development, both internal and external, is positively influenced by learning culture. It aids in keeping the objectives in line with the work practices.
- Appreciation, creative contribution and expression of ideas and interests are encouraged through learning. This tends to ease out any unwanted and withdrawn attitude which might otherwise impact the work culture.
- It helps in keeping up with the latest trends and industry changes which give competitive edge to a company.
- The productivity capacity is increased to a significant extent through this tool.
- It is a profitable method of ROI or Return on Investment.
- It influences the three important pillars of an organization which are people, process and services.
- It aids in indentifying the problem areas related to production and execution which can be revived.
- Along the similar lines it is also helpful in keeping a close eye on the service quality and mark a significant corporate growth.
With all these benefits, there are certain steps that need to be followed to implement learning culture within the organization.
- A training and development plan needs to be chalked out in a detailed manner before starting the actual process. This planning phase should include the current standpoint of the company and areas of improvement.
- The employees who take part in the learning process should be recognized and appreciated for the effort as it boosts the motivation and productivity levels simultaneously.
- There should be an effective feedback system in place in the form of sessions and polls that help in understanding the impact of the training program along with issues that need to be addressed.
- Through this initiative, internal promotion and hiring can be facilitated. Increasing the knowledge base of an employee increases the potential and productivity which can be utilized for senior roles.
- Lastly, the learning system should be formally implemented in accordance to the employee orientation and business needs.
According to published sources in the first quarter of 2016, India marked an expansion of 7.3% GDP in the last quarter of 2015. This development has made the country as one of the fastest growing economies in the world. This has been a positive impact as the GDP increase has been significant compared 6.6% during last quarter of 2014. On the other hand, China’s GDP has slipped by 6.8% during last quarter of 2015. Hence investors have been turning their interests towards various sectors of India. There are several factors which have influenced this development on a large scale.
- One of the primary factors contributing to this fast paced growth is attributed to the fact that India is a net importer of oil and decrease in oil prices have resulted in bringing down the inflation to a great extent.
- India has a population of 1.2 billion, of which 50% consists of people within the age group of 25 years. By 2020, it is expected to be one of the youngest population countries in the world which is likely to serve as an advantage to the consumer and tech companies. At the same time, China is struggling with the aging population and a slower fertility rate.
- Political and legal framework in terms of reforms has been positive towards country growth as a whole.
With all these positive scenarios, there are certain sectors which are likely to become the highest employment zones between 2016 and 2020.
- The frontier in this regard will be the Information technology sector. It has contributed to the rapid transformation of Indian economy. It is expected that the industry will reach USD 225 billion by 2020 with an employee count of 30 million during the same period. The outsourcing segment in this industry is also likely to reach USD 2.5 billion. The payment structure is anticipated to be the highest in this sector.
- The telecom industry is next in line in this regard. Currently, the mobile phone subscription count of India passed 1 billion at the beginning of 2016. Moreover, the smartphone penetration rate is 26.3%. These statistics show a significant growth of this industry which is expected to continue in the coming five years.
- Healthcare segment is one of rising stars of employment that contributes significantly to India’s GDP. More than 40 million jobs are expected in this segment in the coming five years. Medical tourism is on the rise in India and domestic market potential looks eminent.
- Infrastructure segment is the fourth largest in the country and has been accounted for as second fastest growing industry. Though this segment is highly fragmented it is expected to register a growth rate of 7% to 10% in the coming years boosting employment.
- The last but definitely not the least is the retail segment. 100% FDI, online e-commerce, mobile payments and convenience has worked towards its steady development. The projection says that the workforce in this segment is expected to double up by 2020.
The Chief Strategy Officer (CSO) is currently one of the most sought after job role across organization and companies in various industries and domains. The CSO is an executive, who is involved with the assistance of the Chief Executive Officer or CEO in the development, communication, execution and sustenance of various strategic business objectives and processes. The responsibilities of the CSO are as follows.
- One of the prime roles of a CSO is communication and implementation of business strategies in a systematic manner both internally and externally. This involves the workforce, partners, stakeholders and other supportive people or service providers who are associated with the changes and the process.
- He is responsible for initiating and driving the decision making process that influences the short and long terms business development and growth.
- He is responsible for indentifying the key strategic areas that require certain alterations and reforms in accordance to the industry trends and devices a strategic plan along the similar lines.
- The effective monitoring and execution of the strategic planning is performed by him.
- The inception phase is considered one of the most intricate and important stage of implementation of strategic initiatives. A CSO looks after this phase and helps in its successful completion.
- In case of implementation of certain policies and strategies external assistance is essential. A CSO decides the level of assistance and introduces the same according to the need.
- Team management associated with the strategic implementation is handled by the CSO.
With all these responsibilities that are directed at various directions, there are four main categories of CSO.
- The internal consultant is associated with the formulation of the strategic initiatives.
- The specialist brings in certain skill sets that are not present within the organization.
- Coach is responsible for providing information to the strategy builders and facilitating communication within teams and outside according to the need.
- Change agents are the facilitators of the strategy and extensively involved in the implementation phase.
Since, there are various types of job roles involved in the CSO profile, there are certain pointers to be kept in mind while recruiting in this position.
- The CSO types forming the internal consultant as well as the coach are mainly associated with the organizational processes and internal communication. Hence, it is better to recruit someone within the system who has been associated with the organization for longer duration and knows the processes in and out.
- On the other hand, specialist and change agents require certain skill sets that are mainly absent within the present structure. Hence, in these cases, it is better to hire from outside.
- One of the basic qualities which should be extensively tested for a CSO role is the problem solving ability and crisis management. It is crucial as it determines company standpoint in relation to the ever changing market and industry trends.
- Lastly, looking in to achievements related to critical condition handling and team management are also significant criteria to look for.